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Scholars such as Carol Anderson (2017) and Joe Feagin (1994; 2006) have written extensively about the prevalence of white rage and systemic racism in contemporary society. We are seeing this played out in real time with Florida Governor De Santis trying to enact legislation to remove discussions of African American history and block dialogues about racism in schools. Robin DiAngelo (2019) explains “white fragility” as blaming “others with less social power for their discomfort” (109). DiAngelo and others have asserted that efforts, such as that of Governor De Santis, reinforce white fragility in schools. Specifically, curricula and instructional materials that deny and ignore racial power structures in the United States promote a sense of white fragility, especially for white students. To best understand and address this, I plan to conduct a content analysis of selected K-12 history textbooks, curricula, and instructional materials and apply a CTRR (critical theories of race and racism) lens to my analysis. Encouraging dialogue in schools and fostering critical education about the racism embedded in American society will propel this country forward.

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Racism in education; Critical race theory; History--Study and teaching


Curriculum and Social Inquiry | Educational Sociology

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K-12 Education Fostering White Fragility