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Frozen ground; Crops and soils; Sustainable agriculture


Frozen soils impact many industries which rely· on soil, water, and .air resources in developing and manufacturing products. Most noteworthy is the agricultural industry in the northern United States where soils, which sustain food and fiber production, are subjected to frequent freezing and thawing. Soil freezing and thawing influences soil erodibility, surface and ground water quality, air quality, and biological activity. Many strides toward understanding frozen soil processes and managing lands to minimize the adverse effects of freezing and thawing have been made over the last two decades. Yet, further efforts to identify frozen soil processes which influence wind and water erosion, soil faunal adaptation, soil quality, movement of agricultural chemicals,· and rural and urban water supplies will aid industry and society in meeting future needs for food and water.

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