Sewage; Bird populations--Minnesota; Wetland birds
Bird abundance was monitored before (1985 and 1987) and after (1989) sewage wastewater effluent was added to a northern Minnesota wetland. Community parameters (i.e., number of individuals and species richness) varied annually, but, overall bird communities in 1985 and 1989 were more similar to each other than they were to the 1987 community. Relative abundance of 35 bird species was unchanged between years and species abundance ranks were not different between years. Distribution of numbers of individuals (relative percent) within nesting and foraging guilds (species that have similar nesting or feeding requirements) was similar among years. Numbers of species that increased or decreased between years was independent of nesting or foraging location (e.g., ground or above ground). Overall, no differences were detected in the bird community that could be attributed to addition of sewage effluent to the wetland up to two years after treatment (1987 to 1989).
Hanowski, J. M.,
Niemi, G. J.
Effect of Sewage Effluent on Bird Abundance and Species Composition in a Northern Minnesota Wetland.
Journal of the Minnesota Academy of Science, Vol. 58 No.2, 5-10.
Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.morris.umn.edu/jmas/vol58/iss2/2