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Lakes & ponds--Minnesota; Water quality


ABSTRACT-lake chemistry surveys indicate a large number of lakes with acid neutralizing capability (ANC) below 200 μeq/L occur in northeast Minnesota where shallow soils over bedrock and exposed rock outcrops predominate, and in moraine areas having rolling to steep topography in north-central and east-central Minnesota. In the Boundary Waters area, lake chemistry is strongly associated with bedrock geology. lakes with ANC <100 μeq/L are associated with granite, basalt, and gabbro formations, while lakes with ANC of 100- 200 μeq/L are associated with slate and greenstone formations. In the rest of the state where soils are deep, landform, soil type, and lake hydrology determine lake chemistry. Most low ANC lakes are found in terminal moraine areas. These lakes are generally small ( <40 ha in area), have limited groundwater inflow, and typically classed as precipitation-dominated seepage lakes. Higher ANC lakes (>400 μeq/L) are often associated with agricultural and residential land uses. Relationships found between ANC and bedrock geology, and between ANC and landform and soils, provided the basis for mapping the distribution of low ANC surface waters in Minnesota. Empirical and process models used to evaluate the actual susceptibility of low ANC lakes in the Upper Midwest to acid deposition impacts and indicated precipitation pH 4.6-4.7 is a threshold level for lake acidification. Modeling also indicated lakes with ANC

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