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Vernal pools; Environmental conditions--Seasonal variations; Ecology


Observations of environmental conditions and biota in four depressed spots, called "vernal ponds", within the Northwoods Audubon Center near Sandstone, Minnesota, are reported for the period March 15 to September 4, 1977. Life cycle dynamics and utilization of the pond areas are considered in relation to time, days of the month, moisture-dryness, and species; but are lumped together for reporting as if the four locations were a single pond entity. Hypotheses as to the role of these ponds in the surrounding ecosystem and questions for possible further investigation are suggested.

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