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Vegetation surveys; Nature--Effect of human beings on


Features of presettlement vegetation of the Nemadji River watershed were determined from surveying records covering three counties in two states. Data from 3,346 trees indicated major distributional differences in portions of the watershed. White pine (Pinus strobus L.) was the predominant species of the Glacial Lake Duluth Basin, while Tamarack (Larix laricina (Du Roi, K. Koch) characterized the surrounding area of glacial till. In addition, forests occupying ravines were, in general, composed of larger individuals and exhibited less evidence of reproduction than trees in adjacent uplands, which might suggest less erosional disturbance than is evident today.

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