Tilapia sparrmani has long been considered a substrate spawning fish but a considerable number of oral brooding tactics hove been observed. Two "experiments" where foreign species young were nurtured orally suggest rather strong oral brooding tendencies for this species.
Collins, H. L.
Mouth Brooding Behavior in the Substrate Spawning Cichlid, Tilapia Sparrmani.
Journal of the Minnesota Academy of Science, Vol. 38 No.1, 17-18.
Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.morris.umn.edu/jmas/vol38/iss1/7