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Ruffed grouse; Habitat selection; Vegetation surveys; Mille Lacs Wildlife Management Area (Minn.)


The upland vegetation in four stands was analyzed for differences in conditions important for ruffed grouse production. The structure of the control stand suggests that Acer saccharum and other shade-tolerant tree species will replace the dominants Quercus borealis and Populus tremuloides. The Acer saccharum would not be useful to grouse. In an adjacent stand in which forest litter had been burned, there was a tremendous amount of reproduction of trembling aspen and much less sugar maple reproduction, compared with the control stand. Differences in the understory beneficial to grouse also were found.

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