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Pine; Trees--Reproduction; Itasca State Park (Minn.)


Natural pine reproduction was studied in 36 forest communities representing the range of ecological variability of the upland forest in Itasca Park, Minnesota. The method of synecological coordinates was used to evaluate reproduction in relation to stand and site conditions. In the absence of fire, predominantly medium to nutrient-rich forest soils favor the growth of herbs, shrubs, and hardwoods under the open canopies of pine and aspen stands. There are very few red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) seedlings under these conditions, and growth of white pine (Pinus strobus L.) seedlings is severely restricted.

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