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Mallard; Nature observation; Farm ponds; Foster care of animals


The survival of hand-reared, game-farm mallards released on artificial farm ponds was studied in Goodhue County, Minnesota. Of the 300 ducklings released each year from 1965 through 1967, an average of 45 per cent survived until most were capable of flying. More ducklings survived when released on ponds fenced from livestock than on unfenced ponds. Grazing livestock severely reduce cover vegetation around unfenced ponds. A total of 3.7 per cent of the bands were recovered. The first year recoveries represent 64 per cent of all the bands reported. Thirty-nine per cent of the band recoveries occurred within 15 miles of the release site.

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