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Thuja occidentalis; Forest regeneration; Deer--Habitat


Regeneration of white cedar in six northern Minnesota swamps by layering, suckering, and seeding was found where surface and subsurface soils were circum-neutral (median pH 7.1 for surface soils and 7.0 for subsurface soils) but not on more acid soils. Regeneration was best where the peat soil was coarsely decomposed and little compacted, and where the water table was high with some flow of ground water through the swamp. Sphagnum moss grew on all regeneration sites but was also found on more acid, unsuitable sites. No single associated groundcover plant appeared to be a specifically reliable indicator species for regeneration sites, but the most usual were tamarack (Larix laricina), Labrador tea (Ledum green-landicum), and creeping snowberry (Gaultheria procumbens. Suggestions are given for restoring cedar swamps for use as deer yards.

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