Document Type


Publication Date



Whitefish Chain (Minn.); Forests and forestry--Minnesota--Whitefish Chain; Island ecology--Minnesota--Whitefish Chain


During an investigation of the area of the Whitefish Lakes, it was noted that two definite types of forest communities existed, a conifer forest and a hardwood forest. It was also noted that each type appeared on different parent soil materials. The problem was actually divided into four parts as follows: How well did the vegetation and the parent material correlate? What was the plant succession in the area? How was the plant succession affected by the parent material? And, how was the resulting soil affected by the vegetation?

It was decided that a forest study of islands would give a more characteristic result than a study of the mainland areas. There are several islands in the Whitefish Lake chain and three were chosen because islands are somewhat protected from the influence of man; they are protected from fire by a natural moat; they are small enough to permit an intensive study because of their natural boundary; they were chosen for their location in the soil areas of the region, two islands being in modified till and the third is in Red drift (Winchell, 1899); finally, they included the different forest types present in the region.

First Page


Last Page


Primo Type




To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.