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Publication Date

1961

Keywords

Commensalism; Tamiasciurus; Yellow-bellied sapsucker; Hummingbirds; Itasca, Lake (Minn.)

Abstract

This is an investigation of a relationship noted at the Lake Itasca Biological Station. It was noted that the Red Squirrel, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, in some locations spent a considerable amount of time lapping sap from the rows of holes drilled in the White Birch, Betula papyrifera, by the Yellow-bellied Sapsuckers, Sphyropious varius varius (L.). After the invasion of the red squirrel the sapsuckers and the Ruby-throated Hummingbird, Archilochus colubris (L.) continued to utilize the same food supply as well as a considerably number of insects. The two general objectives of this endeavor were then to investigate some of the related ecological factors and to gain observation data to aid in determining the status of this relationship. Odum (1959) defines commensalism as a relationship that requires a mutual aid for survival. Guyer ( 1948) refers to commensalism as being an association of messmates. By noting all of the animals concerned it was hoped it could be determined if this was a true commensal situation.

The area under consideration was located in Clearwater County in Lake Itasca State Park. The study of the problem was restricted to the University of Minnesota Biological Station and the point of land extending into Lake Itasca known as Bear Paw Point.

First Page

272

Last Page

274

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